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Peter J. Pappas

The Grace of God in Creation: Palamas, Cabasilas,And Sacramental Theology

From "THE CHURCH AND THE LIBRARY, Studies in Honor of Rev. Dr. George C. Papademetriou".Ed. Somerset Hall Press, Boston, Massachusetts 2005.

According to the record of divine revelation, preserved in its fullness by Orthodox Christianity, the goal of human existence consists of union with God and growth in His image and likeness. This process of deification, or theosis, reflects the basic manifestation of human response to the Gospel of Christ. Because of God's revelation, expressed most fully in the incarnation, human beings are given the opportunity for a renewed relationship with God through the saving acts of Christ. At the same time, God also maintains an absolute transcendence, and so cannot be known in His essence by created beings. The Christian faith affirms these two teachings and simultaneously holds them in a certain creative tension in order to maintain a proper understanding of the relationship of God to His creation. It is this understanding that St. Gregory Palamas sought to defend in the fourteenth century. Palamas affirmed the possibility of real communion with God and thus, his theology became the paradigm of Orthodoxy for subsequent generations.

The Holy Trinity establishes this communion with mankind primarily through the sacramental life of the faith community established by Christ. Because of the relationship of these truths, Palamism had a profound impact on subsequent developments in the sacramental theology of the Eastern Orthodox Church. One major contributor to this development was a contemporary of Palamas: Nicholas Cabasilas. Cabasilas sought, through his work, The Life in Christ, to affirm human identity as being grounded in the relationship to God. This work is a collection of seven short books that describe the Christian life as being centered on the experience of the holy mysteries and their relevance to the whole of existence. While not mentioning Palamite theology in particular, even a cursory examination of this work reveals the impact that the theology of Palamas had on Cabasilas. This work reveals, in a clear and concise manner, Palamite understanding of sacramental theology that represents an important body of theological discourse in the Orthodox Church.

In order to explain the theology of Cabasilas in light of Palamism, it becomes necessary to examine a few of the underlying presuppositions of Palamas, namely his anthropology and his distinctions between created and uncreated grace. The way that Palamas viewed the human body affected his understanding of how God related to the human person and thus the role of the sacraments in this process. Classical philosophers looked on matter as being inferior to spiritual or noetic faculties. They viewed the body as simply a container for the soul, which seeks to be liberated from the material world. As was the case with previous generations, Palamas stood at the crossroads of two views of the world, the Judaic biblical model and the classical Greek tradition. He affirmed the Biblical understanding of the human being as created in God's image, reflected in body and soul that interact and ascend towards God. The human body, according to Palamas, is created by God, and is by nature good; and by the sanctifying, uncreated grace of Christ, it becomes the temple of the Holy Spirit (1). Thus, the Palamite view of matter and the body strongly influenced his approach to the sacraments, which are then seen as physical means of communicating spiritual reality. Mantzaridis stated that, "the sacraments are created media that transmit the uncreated grace of God “(2). Such a statement leads to a consideration of the second presupposition, namely the Palamite doctrine of grace.

Palamas viewed grace as the uncreated life of God communicated to His creation through His energies. Palamas distinguished this uncreated grace from simply a change in the character of the created being, which he viewed as created grace. "There is nothing strange," wrote Palamas, "in using the word 'grace' both for the created and the uncreated and in speaking of a created grace distinct from the created"(3). Palamas, in agreement with the eastern patristic tradition, maintained that the appearances of God in the Old Testament were manifestations of the divine Logos and not created symbols manifested to bring about contemplation of God. Thus, Palamite Orthodoxy avoided the idea of a system of "created graces" in which the Church becomes merely the institution established to dispense these means of grace.

With these considerations in mind, one can examine the sacramental theology presented by Cabasilas in light of Palamism. First of all, it is significant that Cabasilas dealt with the sacraments of Baptism, Chrismation, and Eucharist. Like Palamas and those before him, Cabasilas did not feel constrained to speak in terms of the scholastic system of seven sacraments. Union with Christ manifested in newness of life is the proper end of faith that is begun in this life and perfected in the age to come. Christ bestows this new life through His Mysteries. Cabasilas wrote in section six of the first book:

Baptism confers being and, in short, existence according to Christ. It receives us when we are dead and corrupted and first leads us into life. The anointing with chrism perfects him who has received new birth by infusing into him the energy that befits such a life. The Holy Eucharist preserves and continues this life and health, since the bread of life enables us to preserve that which has been acquired and to continue in life. It is therefore by this Bread that we live and by the chrism that we are moved, once we have received being from the baptismal washing (4).

This statement reveals some of the characteristics of his approach in subsequent chapters. First, there is an unmistakable sacramental realism. He makes strong, direct, and sometimes seemingly an extravagant claim for what the sacraments accomplish, but at the same time emphasize the necessity for cooperation on the part of the person participating in the mystery. There is a need for awareness of the grace that comes through the sacrament and the characteristic fruit of a moral nature that must be present to indicate the efficacy of the sacrament. Seen in light of the necessary cooperation with the grace received in the sacrament, the results of the believer's moral choices take on a significant sacramental character.

Cabasilas' framework for discussing the Mysteries assumes an ecclesial context, which is why in addition to Baptism, Chrismation, and Eucharist, he discusses the consecration of a church and the preparation of the sacred vessels for celebration of the mysteries. This, in turn, derives from the saving acts of the incarnation, most notably the atonement. Fr. John Meyendorff stated:

Palamas' thought is equally plainly expressed in another passage of the Triads: "Since the Son of God, in His incomparable love for men, did not only unite His divine hypostasis with our nature, by clothing Himself in a living body and a soul gifted with intelligence ... but also united Himself... with the human hypostases themselves, in mingling Himself with each of the faithful by communion with His Holy Body, and since He becomes one single body with us and makes us a temple of the undivided Divinity, for in the very body of Christ dwelleth the fullness of the Godhead bodily (Col 2:9), how should He not illuminate those who commune worthily with the divine ray of His Body which is within us, lightening their souls, as He illuminated the very bodies of the disciples on Mount Tabor? For, on the day of the Transfiguration, that Body, source of the light of grace, was not yet united with our bodies; it illuminated from outside those who worthily approached it, and sent the illumination into the soul by the intermediary of the physical eyes; but now, since it is mingled with us and exists in us it illuminates the soul from within" (Triad I, 3, 38). This passage of Pauline inspiration shows why Palamas felt that defense of the hesychasts was defense of the Gospel itself: it was the actual presence of Christ in the sacramental life of the Church that was put in question by Barlaamite nominalism.(5) Cabasilas himself wrote, "We were justified, first by being set free from bonds and condemnation, in that He who had done no evil pleaded for us by dying on the cross. By this He paid the penalty for the sins that we had audaciously committed; then, because of that death, we were made friends of God and righteous "(6). While this statement may seem to reflect the influence of Anselm's satisfaction theory of the atonement, subsequent statements reveal that Cabasilas did not reduce the atonement to juridical terms nor did he neglect the ecclesiastical context of salvation.

Toward the end of the first book, Cabasilas referred to the righteous of the Old Covenant who looked forward to their deliverance by Christ. He stated, "Formerly it was the law that united us to God, but now it is faith and grace and all that depends on them. It is thus clear that at the time the fellowship of men with God was a condition of servitude, but that it is now one of sonship and friendship, for the law pertains to slaves, but grace, confidence, and faith belong to friends and sons "(7). Palamas himself took very seriously the deifying grace of God revealed to the prophets of the Old Testament. This grace operates in both the Old and New Testaments, with the difference that now in Christ it becomes for the just and repentant, before and after the earthly life of Christ, a permanent gift of the soul that is not lost at the death of the body. In this sense, God in Christ dwells by the grace of the Holy Spirit in Christians in a new way (8).Thus the incarnation provides the basis for the believer's union with God that is appropriated through the mysteries. At the end of this section Cabasilas stated:

He entered into the Holy Place when He had offered Himself to the Father, and He leads in those who are willing, as they share in His burial. This, however, does not consist in dying as He died, but in showing forth that death in the baptismal washing and proclaiming it upon the sacred table, when they, after being anointed, in an ineffable manner feast upon Him who was done to death and rose again. Thus, when He has led them through the gates, He brings them to the kingdom and the crowns (9).

This statement reveals an understanding of the mysteries as a participation in the events that they signify, dying with Christ, as St. Paul said in reference to Baptism, and proclaiming His death upon the sacred table. Cabasilas did not limit his understanding of the mystery to the rite as a means of grace, but as a reality to be lived based on what is accomplished in the liturgical action.

Cabasilas concluded the first book by saying that the mysteries are the means by which we appropriate Christ's saving work. Mantzaridis stated, "The source from which the sacraments derive their grace is the dispensation of Christ. We have said that Christ regenerated and deified in Himself corrupted human nature, but not individual hypostasis. For the grace manifest in Christ to bear fruit, however, it must be made accessible to specific persons "(10). This understanding, also present in Cabasilas, reflects a strong affirmation of the reality of deification and place of synergy in this process. Fr. Meyendorff stated:

Just as sin and death were transmitted from Adam by natural generation so life has been given to us by the new birth through baptism and the eucharist which incorporates us with Christ. Thus the salvation brought by Christ touches us all personally. "He grants a perfect redemption," Palamas writes, "not only to the nature which He assumed from us in an unbreakable union, but to (each) of those who believe in Him... To that end He instituted holy baptism, defined the laws leading to salvation, preached repentance to all, and communicated His own body and His own blood. It is not nature only, but the hypostasis of each believer that receives baptism, lives according to the divine commandments, and shares the deifying bread and the chalice "(11).

With this foundation thus established, Cabasilas discussed Baptism in the second book. The two chief sacraments, according to Palamas, are Baptism and the Eucharist. He said in one of his homilies, "On these two sacraments depends our whole salvation, for in them is recapitulated the complete theandric dispensation "(12). Fr. Meyendorff pointed out, "Baptism is one of the commonest themes in Palamas' sermons, as it is in his theological and spiritual writings. The sheer number of references to Christian initiation shows the importance he attached to it; for him, neither Christian experience nor spirituality could exist outside the sacramental grace, which, in the Church, communicated the divine life to the faithful "(13). Baptism is a new birth, an illumination, a washing, a gift, and an anointing. Cabasilas described the various stages of the baptismal rite, including the exorcism, the breathing on the candidate, the stripping of the candidate, the renunciation, the recitation of the Creed, and the Baptism, and showed how these actions enable the candidate to experience the spiritual reality that the acts represent:
"Do we not also at Baptism celebrate the divine dispensation and it above all? Indeed so, not so much by what we say, but by our actions"(14).

Cabasilas viewed Original Sin, in part, as the disposition to wickedness on the part of those descending from Adam. The baptismal washing sets us free from corruption and death. The effects of baptism are seen in a willingness to die daily to sin. These effects are most clearly shown in the lives of the martyrs, for many of whom their martyrdom also served as their baptism. These effects are to set free from sins, to reconcile humans to God, to make humans one with God, to open the eyes that souls might perceive the divine light, and to prepare for the life to come. Neither Cabasilas nor Palamas advocated a mechanical understanding of the sacrament of baptism. It does not restrain the will so that many who have been baptized may live in extreme impiety and wickedness, just as those with eyes may choose to live in darkness. Nevertheless, Cabasilas pointed out that even in cases of apostasy, a person is not re-baptized but is re-chrismated.

Palamas himself dealt at great length with the necessity of awareness of baptismal grace. The death to sin and new life in Christ must be evident in the conduct of the baptized person. Palamas considered the violation of God's will after baptism more blameworthy than the transgression of Adam. Meyendorff stated, "Adam was really free when he participated in divine life; 'grace' and 'freedom' do not contradict, but presuppose each other, and true human freedom is being restored in the communion of God in Christ. Baptism therefore is an earnest that we receive in order to make it bear fruit "(15). All who receive and retain the regenerative grace of baptism are able to perceive inwardly their regeneration and to experience it mystically. Of particular interest, as Manztaridis pointed out, is what St. Symeon the New Theologian had to say about the necessity for such an experience in Christian life:

Every baptized Christian has put on Christ ... When a man whose body is naked puts on something; he has a clear awareness of the completed act and perceives the type of garment he is wearing. How then is it possible for the naked in soul not to feel anything when he puts on God? If, however, he does not in fact feel anything, then there exist two possible explanations: either God does not exist, or else the man who puts Him on is insensate, that is, dead. And I fear, says Symeon on ending his reflection, that those who maintain that the faithful can possess the Spirit of God within themselves, while remaining unaware of this fact, are in reality dead and naked in soul (16).

Thus, for the hesychastic tradition, an awareness of baptismal grace is necessary to indicate true communion with Christ.

The same is true for the Sacrament of Chrismation, which Cabasilas addresses in the third book. He pointed out how Scripture links the gift of the Spirit with the imposition of hands and that Chrismation is a continuation of this practice. Christ, "the anointed one," was Himself anointed with the Holy Spirit and because He removed the separation between divinity and humanity through the incarnation, the chrism "represents Christ as the point of contact between both natures "(17). He then discussed how Chrismation confers the gifts of the Holy Spirit, saying that, "the effect of this rite is the imparting of the energies of the Holy Spirit "(18). This statement reflects clearly the Palamite distinction and demonstrates how the energies of God are enhypostatized in the believer. In this case, the energies are associated with the person of the Holy Spirit, although it is the Trinity who acts. "While the Trinity in common is the Artificer of the re-creation of men," said Cabasilas, "it is the Logos alone who affects it ... through Himself He gives the Spirit "(19).This passage demonstrates the common action of the Trinity in deification. Jesus sends the Holy Spirit who in turn proceeds from the Father. Cabasilas described the effects of the coming of the Spirit:

In the earliest times this Mystery conferred on those who had been baptized gifts of healing, prophecy, tongues, and such like, which provided a clear proof to all men of the extraordinary power of Christ. Of these there was need when Christianity was being planted and godliness was being established. From that source even now some gifts have been imparted to some. Even in our own and in most recent times men have spoken of future events, have cast out demons and have healed diseases by prayer alone. Nor was it only while they were still walking about alive that they were able to do this, but since the spiritual energy has not departed from the blessed ones even after death their very tombs have availed to do the same (20).

Therefore, not only are the spiritual gifts active, but, in many cases, they remain so after the death of the person to whom they have been granted, as in the case of relics of certain saints, which is certainly what he describes. This is consistent with the Palamite view of the human body and its participation in prayer and in the uncreated grace of God. Palamas mentioned the gifts of the spirit in his discussion of prayer and the transformation of the body:

Most of the charisms of the Spirit are granted to those worthy of them at the time of prayer ... The gift of diversity of tongues and their interpretation, which Paul recommends us to acquire by prayer, shows that certain charisms operate through the body... The same is true of the word of instruction, the gift of healing, the performing of miracles, and Paul's laying-on of hands by which he communicated the Holy Spirit (21). But, said Cabasilas, "the gifts that the chrism always procures for Christians and that are always timely are the gifts of godliness, prayer, love, and sobriety, and the other gifts that are opportune for those who receive them. Yet, they elude many Christians; the greatness and the power of this Mystery is hidden from them and, as it is written in the Acts, 'they did not even know that there is a Holy Spirit.' Since this Mystery takes place in infancy they have no perception of its gifts when it is celebrated and they receive them; when they have reached maturity they have turned aside to what they ought not to do and have blinded the eye of the soul "(22).

As was the case with Baptism, the efficacy of Chrismation implies the need for awareness and an exercise of free will in cooperation with the sacramental grace. Cabasilas also stated:

On all, then, who have been initiated the Mystery produces its proper effects. Not all, however, have perception of the gifts or eagerness to make use of the riches that they have been given. Some are unable to grasp the gifts because of their immature age; others are not eager because they are not prepared or have failed to give effect to their preparation. Some have subsequently repented and bewailed the sins that they have committed and live according to right reason, and so have given proof of the grace that has been infused into their souls. Accordingly, Paul writes to Timothy, "do not neglect the gift you have." Thus it does not profit us to have received the gift if we are careless. There is need of effort and vigilance on the part of those who wish to have these things active in their souls (23).

Throughout the entire work, Cabasilas maintained the tension between the objective validity of the sacrament and its need for existential relevance to the life of the believer. By virtue of their existence, the sacraments always have their intended effect on the person receiving them. However, there is also a need for awareness of the sacramental grace in order for it to bear fruit in the life of the believer. Therefore, with regard to chrismation, Cabasilas emphasized the need for vigilance. St. Symeon the New Theologian had stated this in even stronger terms:

Just as it is impossible for one to be saved who has not been baptized by water and the Spirit (Jn 3:5), neither is it for him who has sinned after Baptism, unless he be baptized from on high and be born again. This, the Savior confirmed when He said to Nicodemus, "Unless one is born from on high, he cannot enter the kingdom of heaven" (Jn 3:3, 5). Again He said to the apostles, "John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit" (Acts 1:5). If one is ignorant of the baptism wherewith he was baptized as a child and does not even realize that he was baptized, but only accepts it by faith and then wipes it away by thousands upon thousands of sins, and if he denies the second Baptism - I mean, that which is through the Spirit, given from above by the loving-kindness of God to those who seek it by penitence - by what other means can he ever obtain salvation? By no means (24)!

It is clear that for the hesychastic tradition, of which Symeon, Palamas, and Cabasilas were all certainly a part, Christian initiation is a vital part of participating in the energies of God. Baptism brings about rebirth, cleansing, and illumination, and Chrismation makes us partakers of Christ, the anointed one. Palamas did not speak directly to the Sacrament of Chrismation as he did to Baptism simply because there was not always a great distinction between the two and they were seen as a unified act of Christian initiation.

In the fourth book, Cabasilas continued with a discussion of the Eucharist, which he viewed as the greatest of all the mysteries. The Eucharist completes Baptism and Chrismation and is the application of the atonement to the believer. Through participation in the Eucharist, the individual hypostasis receives the effects of the atonement, and transcends individual existence to become part of the body of Christ. Through Baptism the "image" in man is purified and is enabled to follow Christ, while the Holy Eucharist advances the person toward the "likeness" and full union with Christ (25). The union of Christ with each believer through the Eucharist is not the same union as that between the human and divine nature in Christ, yet it is not simply a moral union. Palamas explained:

Those deemed worthy of union with God so as to become one spirit with Him are not united to God in substance, and since all theologians bear witness in their statements to the fact that God is imparticipable in substance and the hypostatic union happens to be predicated of the Word and God-man alone, it follows that those deemed worthy of union with God are united to God in energy and that the spirit whereby he who clings to God is one with God is called and is indeed the uncreated energy of the Spirit and not the substance of God (26).

The believer, as a human hypostasis, unites with the human nature of Christ. Because God the Son joined human nature in a hypostatic union, the believer thus partakes in the life of the Holy Trinity through Christ. Therefore, the sacramental union is a real union with His deifying grace and energy (27).

Through this union with the deifying grace and energy of Christ, the believer shares in the incorruptible and eternal life of God. This is offered as a free gift of God's grace in which the believer can freely participate through the Holy Spirit. It is the understanding of this union with Christ that Cabasilas developed. According to Cabasilas, the Eucharist unites us to Christ, sets us free from the law of the flesh, enables us to worship in spirit and in truth, makes us sons of God, and forms the new man in Christ in us. In his discussion of the sanctifying effects of the Eucharist, Cabasilas again emphasized the role of sanctifying grace. It is through Christ that "they become alive instead of dead, wise instead of unwise, holy, righteous, and sons of God instead of polluted, wicked, and slaves. From themselves and from human nature and effort there is nothing whatever that enables them to be justly so called "(28). Book four concluded with a discussion of how our very bodies benefit from the new life, which maintains the Palamite teaching concerning the participation of the body in deification. Thus, he described a number of effects connected with the Eucharist.

As with the other sacraments, partaking of the Eucharist implies an awareness of the grace received and an outward manifestation through vigilance and struggle toward virtue. In comparing the Eucharist to Baptism, Cabasilas said that the main difference consists in the fact that the Eucharist is not spoken of as slaying him who has sinned and creating him anew but as merely cleansing him while he remains himself. The guilty is cleansed in Baptism by being washed, but in the Eucharist by being fed. In keeping with the theme of life in Christ, the new life is begun in birth through Baptism and is sustained by partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ.

The Eucharist requires proper preparation on the part of those desiring to partake. Regarding the teachings of Palamas, Fr. Meyendorff stated:

The necessity for "works" is constantly stressed in Palamas' writings. However he does not so much present this "practice of the commandments" as a condition of grace, but rather as the necessary and free collaboration of man with the redeeming action of God; the grace of baptism, once received, should, to be effective, become a living reality, and only human goodwill can give it that character (29).

Cabasilas spoke mainly in terms of cleansing and pursuit of virtue, and said that Christ is our ally in this struggle. The Eucharist is thus seen as a reward for victory as well as a means of purification. This purification is also brought about through self-examination, repentance, and confession. Palamas emphasized the need to commune worthily through approaching the sacrament with profound faith. Through faith and repentance, human beings do not transform themselves, but give themselves up to God, who transforms the unworthy into worthy (30). Through partaking of the Eucharist with the appropriate preparation, the grace of Baptism is made a living reality that is evident in the life of the Christian.

Perhaps the most significant effect of the Eucharist is that it constitutes the Church as the body of Christ. As we become one with Christ, we also become one with each other. The Church is thus a communion of members participating in the process of deification through union with the uncreated grace of God. The opponents of Palamas, in not accepting the existence of an uncreated grace uniting man with God, challenged the essential basis of Orthodox ecclesiology (31). The uncreated grace of God unites the members with Christ and with each other. Since for the Orthodox tradition there is but one sacrament, the life in Christ, the Church as the body of Christ constitutes the one mystery. The grace that is present in the mystical body of Christ then becomes the basis for the particular sacramental actions that the Church administers.

Because of the close relationship between the Church as the body of Christ, and the building set apart for its use in celebrating the mysteries, Cabasilas devoted the fifth book to a description of the consecration of a church building. He again reflected flexibility in what he considers sacramental in his rationale for discussion of the preparation of the altar through the consecration service.

Now since the altar is the beginning from which every sacred rite proceeds, whether it be the partaking of the banquet or the reception of the anointing, whether it be ordination or the partaking of the most perfect gifts of the washing, then if we in addition to what has already been said, to the best of our ability examine the rite that sets up the altar, we shall not, I think, do anything superfluous or irrelevant (32).

He described the various ceremonies of the consecration and how the rites signify human consecration to God. He concluded with a discussion of the anointing of the altar and of the use of relics in the altar. Cabasilas applied a great deal of symbolism to the various acts involved in the consecration and again emphasized the Church as the body of Christ, to which he compared the physical temple. In this way, he once again emphasized the Palamite understanding of matter as something that is sanctified and holy.

Cabasilas concluded The Life in Christ in books six and seven with an explanation of the necessity of preserving the grace received through the mysteries. He discussed the beatitudes as a model for the life in Christ and the importance of joy and love. In one section he also extolled the benefits of frequent communion, a characteristic of sacramental theology that was certainly not universal in the fourteenth century. This understanding followed from the importance he, like Palamas before him, ascribed to the Eucharist while at the same time maintaining the necessity of grace to enable the believer to partake worthily.

As is evident from this study of Cabasilas, Palamite theology has had a profound effect on Eastern Orthodox sacramental theology. Palamas fit within the hesychast tradition previously manifested in the works of St. Symeon the New Theologian and later in the works of Cabasilas, both in the treatise discussed here and in his Commentary on the Divine Liturgy. Such an approach reflects an emphasis on communion with God, experience and awareness of grace, and the centrality of the holy mysteries to a dynamic Christian life. This sacramental life springs from the worship of the Church, the mystical body of Christ, and is sustained by the uncreated grace of God. By rediscovering and entering into the sacramental existence described by Palamas, Orthodoxy can recover the consciousness that made the early Church a dynamic spiritual force. This can only occur with awareness among the faithful of the sacramental grace that has been bestowed on them. This consciousness is but one of the ways that the theology of St. Gregory Palamas will continue to enrich the life of the Church for present and future generations.


1. George C. Papademetriou, "The Human Body According to Saint Gregory Palamas," Greek Orthodox Theologies Review, 34, 1 (1989), p. 6.

2. Georgios Mantzaridis, The Deification of Man, trans. Liadain Sherrard (Crestwood, New York: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1984), p. 41.

3. John A. Meyendorff, A Study of Gregory Palamas (London: Faith Press, 1964), p. 164.

4. Nicholas Cabasilas, The Life in Christ, trans. Carmine de Catanzaro (Crestwood, New York: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1974), p. 50.

5. Meyendorff, op. cit., p. 151.

6. Cabasilas, op. cit., p. 53.

7. Cabasilas, op. cit., p. 56.

8. John Romanides, "Notes on the Palamite Controversy and Related Topics," Greek Orthodox Theological Review, continuation of an article begun in 6, 2 (1960-61), 249.

9. Cabasilas, op. cit., p. 56.

10. Mantzaridis, op. cit., p. 42.

11. Meyendorff, op. cit., p. 159.

12. Mantzaridis, op. cit., p. 43.

13. Meyendorff, op. cit., p. 160.

14. Cabasilas, op. cit., p. 75.

15. Meyendorff, op. cit., p. 166.

16. Mantzaridis, op. cit., p. 49.

17. Cabasilas, op. cit., p. 105.

18. Cabasilas, op. cit., p. 106.

19. Ibid.

20. Cabasilas, op. cit., p. 107.

21. Gregory Palamas, The Triads, ed. John Meyendorff, trans. Nicholas Gendle (New York: Paulist Press, 1983), p. 52.

22. Cabasilas, op. cit., p. 107.

23. Cabasilas, op. cit., p. 109.

24. Symeon the New Theologian, The Discourses, trans. C. J. deCatanzaro (New York: Paulist Press, 1980), p. 337.

25. Mantzaridis, op. cit., p. 51.

26. Saint Gregory Palamas: The One Hundred and Fifty Chapters, trans. Robert E. Sinkewicz (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1988), p. 171.

27. Mantzaridis, op. cit., p. 53.

28. Cabasilas, op. cit., p. 138.

29. Meyendorff, op. cit., p. 165.

30. Mantzaridis, op. cit., p. 56.

31. Mantzaridis, op. cit., p. 57.

32. Cabasilas, op. cit., p. 149.

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